Thursday, September 27, 2012

Learnable Programming

More great stuff from Bret Victor:

Start by jumping through and watching the embedded videos. They are self explanatory. Watch them right now. It'll only take a few seconds each.

I started working along a similar line about a decade ago. I called it "interactive execution". The key idea is the program is re-run with every single change you make. All values are logged. You can see the actual inputs and outputs of every function for the entire run. You can see them update in realtime as you edit your code. It is easy to dismisses these ideas as non-applicable in "real-world-code":

These design principles were presented in the context of systems for learning, but they apply universally. An experienced programmer may not need to know what an "if" statement means, but she does need to understand the runtime behavior of her program, and she needs to understand it while she's programming.
A frequent question about the sort of techniques presented here is, "How does this scale to real-world programming?" This is a reasonable question, but it's somewhat like asking how the internal combustion engine will benefit horses. The question assumes the wrong kind of change.
Here is a more useful attitude: Programming has to work like this. Programmers must be able to read the vocabulary, follow the flow, and see the state. Programmers have to create by reacting and create by abstracting. Assume that these are requirements. Given these requirements, how do we redesign programming?

I believe it isn't that hard to imagine how to apply "interactive execution" to real-world code. Two simple tricks allow you to achieve useful application of these ideas in any sized (single-threaded) code-base:

  1. Allow the programmer to select a function as the start-point. Execute the program up to the start of that function and start a transaction against the entire running state of the code. Then, roll back the transaction with every change and restart execution from that start function.
  2. Run the execution in a separate thread from the editing thread. Every character typed aborts the execution and restarts it. If the execution takes a second or two, that's OK. When the programmer wants to see the current outputs, they just stop typing for a bit. If it takes minutes or hours, the programmer is in charge of picking a better start point for her transactional, interactive-execution session.

This is really powerful stuff. I've often noticed that the skill level of a programmer is proportional to how long they can go between coding and executing their code to see if it works. The key skill here is being able to simulate the computer in your head. What a waste! The computer can simulate itself much better than your head can. Let the computer do what it's good at, and leave the human mind open to being creative.

I liked this quote about OO:

Bob Barton [said] "The basic principle of recursive design is to make the parts have the same power as the whole." For the first time I thought of the whole as the entire computer, and wondered why anyone would want to divide it up into weaker things called data structures and procedures. Why not divide it up into little computers... Why not thousands of them, each simulating a useful structure?

I think I'll start calling objects "little computers".


  1. Great article for the lovers for programmers. I am happy to say keep up the good job to share with us - my younger brother was so glad that i shared this blog post with him.

  2. From your article learning programming languages is too easy. We have a wide range of luxuries limos for your Airport Transportation Services in Vail CO. We provide you the fastest and safest Transportation Services.


Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.